B-Cell Receptors (BCRs)

Introduction

The immune system relies on the ability of B cells to produce antibodies that can recognize and bind to foreign molecules, or antigens. This is accomplished through a complex process called B-cell receptor (BCR) recombination.

BCR Structure

The BCR is a protein complex that is expressed on the surface of B cells and is composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, each of which is encoded by a different set of genes.

V(D)J Recombination

The genes for the heavy and light chains are assembled through a process called V(D)J recombination, which involves the rearrangement of gene segments to create a unique DNA sequence that codes for a specific antibody. The process is mediated by enzymes called recombinases, which cut and splice DNA segments together. The recombinases act on specific gene segments, which are called variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments.

Importance of Diversity

The V(D)J recombination process is stochastic, meaning that it is random and generates a wide variety of antibody sequences. This diversity is essential for the immune system, as it allows B cells to recognize and respond to a wide range of antigens.

BCR Function

Once the BCR has been assembled, it is expressed on the surface of the B cell. When an antigen binds to the BCR, it triggers a signaling cascade that activates the B cell and initiates an immune response. This can lead to the production of large quantities of antibodies that can neutralize or eliminate the antigen

Conclusion

In summary, BCR recombination is a complex process that is essential for the development of B cells and the production of antibodies. The process generates a diverse range of antibodies that can recognize and respond to a wide variety of antigens, providing the immune system with the ability to defend against a broad range of pathogens.

Ryan King Art: How to use Blender’s snapping tool

Overview: Ryan shows how to turn on the snapping feature, the different settings available and the different cases where it might be useful, such as for 1) more precise modeling, 2) duplicating and moving objects, 3) modeling a plank tower, and 4) using modular assets.

Snap tool modes beyond increment: Ryan also explains how to snap the selection to vertices, edges, and faces of other objects.

Unit scale options and measurement: Additionally, Ryan demonstrates how to change the unit scale and system and how to view measurements in Blender.


Check your understanding:

What is the shortcut key to toggle on and off Blender’s snapping feature?

A) Shift + T

B) Shift + S

C) Shift + Tab

D) Shift + C


2. By default, what is the “snap to” setting in Blender’s snapping feature?

A) Vertex

B) Edge

C) Increment

D) Face


Which of the following can be used in Blender’s snapping feature?

A) Move

B) Rotate

C) Scale

D) All of the above


What is the default unit system in Blender?

A) Imperial

B) Metric

C) US

D) European


What are modular assets in Blender?

A) Low poly models

B) Assets that can connect seamlessly

C) Assets that cannot be edited

D) High poly models


What is the shortcut key to go to top view in Blender?

A) 1

B) 3

C) 5

D) 7


Which option in Blender’s snapping feature allows you to snap your selection to the face of another object?

A) Vertex

B) Edge

C) Increment

D) Face

Gamefromscratch: Why use the Godot game engine?

Purpose: Mike discusses the strengths of the Godot game engine and why someone might choose it over the Unity or Unreal game engines.

Benefits: He highlights the small size of the engine, making it compatible with low-end devices, its status as the only free and open-source game engine of the three, and its superior Linux support.

Potential drawbacks: While he acknowledges that the other engines have more features, he argues that Godot is “good enough” for many purposes and can be easily scaled up without having to pay anyone.

Check your understanding:

  1. What is the size of the Godot Game Engine?
    • A) About 1 GB in size
    • B) About 100 MB in size
    • C) About 10 GB in size
  2. What is the licensing scheme for the Unreal Engine?
    • A) MIT open source license
    • B) Proprietary license
    • C) OSI certified licensed engine
  3. How much does the Unity Game Engine cost for a developer making more than $100,000 a year?
    • A) $0
    • B) $399 per developer per year
    • C) A five percent royalty
  4. What is the advantage of using the Godot Game Engine for Linux development?
    • A) It is the only engine that supports Linux
    • B) It has better Linux support than the other engines
    • C) It has equal Linux support to the other engines
  5. What is the primary focus of the video?
    • A) Discussing the weaknesses of the Godot Game Engine
    • B) Comparing the Godot Game Engine to other game engines
    • C) Highlighting the strengths of the Godot Game Engine
  6. What is the biggest advantage of using the Godot Game Engine?
    • A) It has more features than the other engines
    • B) It has better graphics than the other engines
    • C) It can run on low-end hardware
  7. What is the licensing scheme for the Godot Game Engine?
    • A) Proprietary license
    • B) MIT open source license
    • C) OSI certified licensed engine