Final Thoughts on Cytokines

For Immunology Chapter 4 Day 3

  1. Compare and contrast signaling via small G proteins (page 78) with large G proteins (p132). Include the regulatory activity of GAPs and GEFs in your answer.
  2. We’ve already talked about IL-1 regulation via IL-1ra and soluble IL-1 receptors. Now discuss viral mechanisms of interfering with IL-1 and consider whether each viral mechanism is unique or a copycat of how the immune system regulates IL-1.
  3. How do septic shock and toxic shock differ?
  4. Your book doesn’t do a good job of describing cytokine storms. First, would you look into why the 1918 flu virus caused cytokine storms?  Second, could you come up with a better description of cytokine storms?  Finally, would you link secondary bacterial infections with cytokine storms?

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