Signaling: Common Pathways and Strategies

For Immunology (Chapter 3 Day 2) 

  1. TCRs and BCRs lack intracellular domains that are capable of signaling.  How do these receptors signal downstream?  (Your answer should include discussion of ITAMs, kinases, lipid rafts, tyrosines, coreceptors, SH2 domains, etc.) 
  2. Discuss how Src kinases are regulated and why it is important to have more than one layer of regulation.  Also, what is the story associated with v-Src? 
  3. Regulation and transmission of intracellular signaling is fascinating.  What post-translational protein modifications are involved in signaling downstream of ligand binding to cell surface receptors?   
  4. Phospholipase C (PLC) can cleave the polar head off of some membrane phospholipids.  What are the two products of this enzymatic activity?  Which product leads to calcium-mediated signaling and how does this work? 
  5. An overview figure on page 70 shows that NFAT, AP-1, and NF-kappaB family transcription factors are activated downstream of lymphocyte receptor signaling.  Your answer to LO4 explained how NFAT is activated via calcium signaling.  Now break down the activation pathways resulting in AP-1 and NF-kappaB activation. 

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