Pattern Recognition Receptors and Interferon-Induced Antiviral Immunity

For Immunology Chapter 5 Day 2

  1. Jules Hoffman and Bruce Beutler share ½ of the Nobel Prize in 2011.  Summarize their research. 
  2. Most TLRs can be found either at the plasma membrane to detect extracellular ligands or at endosomes/lysosomes to detect ingested ligands.  TLR4 is unique because it can be found in both compartments.  TLR4, like many TLRs, signals through MyD88 (which we read about previously in IL-1 signaling) and, like TLR3, through TRIF.  When/where does TLR4 signal through each adaptor?  Discuss the pathway downstream of TRIF. 
  3. Compare and contrast the types of molecules detected by TLRs, RLRs, CLRs, and NLRs. 
  4. Type I IFN signaling leads to the induction of 100s of “interferon stimulated genes” (ISGs).  Your textbook introduces PKR, 2’,5’ OAS, and Mx proteins in figure 5-16.  Use additional sources to better describe the antiviral mechanisms associated with these genes and to identify the mechanism of action for one of the many ISGs that your book does not mention. 

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